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Chloride Based De-icer

1. Sodium Chloride, NaCl

– Low price, universally used

- Endothermic reaction requires heat when dissolved in water (83J/g)

- Effective above –9.4 ~ -6.7℃(15.08 ~20.48°F)(effective temperature within 15-20 minutes after spraying)

- Below –12.2℃(10.04°F), less effective(cannot melt the snow)

- The components, sodium ions (Na +) and chloride ions (Cl-), are both harmful to plants because they

interfere with nutrient absorption and growth

- Salt mist may even damage plants away from the road

- Salt accumulates in the soil and contaminates the roots, dehydrates the earth, and causes the plants' yellowing, shrinkage of leaves, and drying at the end of branches

- Salt extraction can be performed by spraying water, but the dense structure with high clay content is a problem because water does not drain well

- Caution during the late winter or early spring seasons should be taken when using this deicer, especially when the ground is not frozen

2. Calcium Chloride, CaCl2

- Price is higher than salt and price fluctuates (216 USD in Korean procurement standards, up from

155 to 302 USD per ton depending on the season)

- Initial melting speed is very fast due to the dissolution reaction involves high calorific value

- Effective de-icing up to –32 ℃(-25.6°F)

- Much less damage to plants than sodium chloride, but plants wither and yellow when used

- Short storage period, must store in a moisture-proof bag

3. Magnesium Chloride, MgCl2

- As with calcium chloride, the dissolution reaction is exothermic; however, it has a lower calorific value

- Effective at above –15 ℃(5°F)

- Magnesium chloride solution causes extensive damage

- Magnesium ions react with calcium hydroxide to form magnesium hydroxide,

- Oxychloride (Mg (OH)Cl・4HO) is produced in the presence of chlorine ion

- Calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) is also replaced with MSH (magnesium silicate hydrate); MSH deteriorates concrete because CSH forms it without cementitious properties

4. Potassium Chloride, KCl

- Can also be used as a fertilizer; it absorbs heat when dissolved in water and is five times more expensive than Sodium Chloride. (It is often mixed with salt.)

- Effective above –4 ℃(24.8°F)

- No damage on concrete, but spraying a lot will cause plants to wither and cause yellowing of the leaves

5. Chloride Based Eco-friendly De-icer

5.1. Solid Form Chloride Base Eco-friendly De-icer

- Chloride Base + Corrosion Inhibitor is added

1) To minimize corrosion and reduce the overuse of corrosion inhibitor, magnesium chloride is often replaced with calcium chloride since magnesium chloride is less corrosive

Inferior Melting Performance(Frictional force improvement (secondary de-icing effect) according to de-icing in the field is 1/3 of conventional de-icer)

2) Damage aquatic ecosystems due to the use of large amounts of corrosion inhibitors (inferior to Acetate)

3) Insufficient corrosion inhibit rate despite the over usage of corrosion inhibitor

: Compared to sodium chloride, 20 ~ 30%

4) Competitors using corrosion inhibitors at about 6% and it greatly increases the price

: Anodic Inhibitor is used as a corrosion inhibitor and is very costly

5.2. Liquid Form Chloride Base Eco-friendly De-icer

- Most eco-friendly liquid de-icer manufacturers use calcium chloride or potassium chloride + corrosion inhibitor

- Fast initial melting performance using calcium chloride

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